100 Most Important Writers Of The 19th Century


Who are the most famous 19th-century writers? Based on MIT’s Historical Popularity Index

1. Victor Hugo (1802, Besançon, FRANCE) ✰✰✰✰✰


2. Oscar Wilde (1854, Dublin, IRELAND) ✰✰✰✰✰


3. Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821, Moscow, Russia) ✰✰✰✰


4. Leo Tolstoy (1828, Yasnaya Polyana, Russia) ✰✰✰✰


5. Edgar Allan Poe (1809, Boston, United States) ✰✰✰✰


6. Anton Chekhov (1860, Taganrog, Russia) ✰✰✰✰


7. Marcel Proust (1871, Auteuil-Neuilly-Passy, France) ✰✰✰✰


8. Hermann Hesse (1877, Calw, Germany) ✰✰✰✰


9. Thomas Mann (1875, Lübeck, Germany) ✰✰✰✰


10. James Joyce (1882, Rathgar, Ireland) ✰✰✰✰


11. Mark Twain (1835, Florida, United States) ✰✰✰✰


12. Bertolt Brecht (1898, Augsburg, Germany) ✰✰✰✰


13. Ernest Hemingway (1899, Chicago, United States) ✰✰✰✰


14. Charles Baudelaire (1821, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰✰✰


15. Hans Christian Andersen (1805, Odense, DENMARK) ✰✰✰✰


16. Émile Zola (1840, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰✰✰


17. Henrik Ibsen (1828, Skien, NORWAY) ✰✰✰✰


18. Arthur Rimbaud (1854, Charleville-Mézières, FRANCE) ✰✰✰✰


19. Franz Kafka (1883, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC) ✰✰✰✰


20. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859, Edinburgh, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰✰✰


21. Nikolai Gogol (1809, Velyki Sorochyntsi, UKRAINE) ✰✰✰✰


22. Agatha Christie (1890, Torquay, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰✰✰


23. George Bernard Shaw (1856, Dublin, IRELAND) ✰✰✰


24. Jack London (1876, San Francisco-Bay Area, United States) ✰✰✰


25. J. R. R. Tolkien (1892, Bloemfontein, SOUTH AFRICA) ✰✰✰


26. Charles Dickens (1812, Portsmouth, United Kingdom) ✰✰✰


27. Jules Verne (1828, Nantes, FRANCE) ✰✰✰


28. Lewis Carroll (1832, Daresbury, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰✰


29. Maxim Gorky (1868, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) ✰✰✰


30. Virginia Woolf (1882, London, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰✰


31. George Sand (1804, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰✰


32. Federico García Lorca (1898, Fuente Vaqueros, SPAIN) ✰✰✰


33. Rudyard Kipling (1865, Mumbai, India) ✰✰✰


34. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC) ✰✰✰


35. André Gide (1869, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰✰


36. Paul Verlaine (1844, Metz, France) ✰✰✰


37. Gustave Flaubert (1821, Rouen, FRANCE) ✰✰✰


38. Knut Hamsun (1859, Lom, NORWAY) ✰✰✰


39. William Faulkner (1897, New Albany, United States) ✰✰


40. H. P. Lovecraft (1890, Providence, United States) ✰✰


41. Octave Mirbeau (1848, Trévières, France) ✰✰


42. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry (1900, Lyon, FRANCE) ✰✰


43. Ivan Turgenev (1818, Oryol, Russia) ✰✰


44. Guy de Maupassant (1850, Tourville-sur-Arques, FRANCE) ✰✰


45. Erich Maria Remarque (1898, Osnabrück, GERMANY) ✰✰


46. Anatole France (1844, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰


47. Emily Brontë (1818, Thornton, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom) ✰✰


48. Joseph Conrad (1857, Berdychiv, Ukraine) ✰✰


49. Jean Cocteau (1889, Maisons-Laffitte, France) ✰✰


50. Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (1899, Saint Petersburg, Russia) ✰✰


51. Stefan Zweig (1881, Vienna, AUSTRIA) ✰✰


52. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862, Ghent, BELGIUM) ✰✰


53. Guillaume Apollinaire (1880, Rome, Italy) ✰✰


54. Romain Rolland (1866, Clamecy, FRANCE) ✰✰


55. Mikhail Lermontov (1814, Moscow, Russia) ✰✰


56. Aldous Huxley (1894, Godalming, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰


57. André Breton (1896, Tinchebray, France) ✰✰


58. August Strindberg (1849, Stockholm, SWEDEN) ✰✰


59. Walt Whitman (1819, Long Island, United States) ✰✰


60. Sully Prudhomme (1839, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰


61. Yasunari Kawabata (1899, Osaka, JAPAN) ✰✰


62. Frédéric Mistral (1830, Provence, France) ✰✰


63. Boris Pasternak (1890, Moscow, Russia) ✰✰


64. Henry David Thoreau (1817, Boston, United States) ✰✰


65. T. S. Eliot (1888, St. Louis, United States) ✰✰


66. Khalil Gibran (1883, Bsharri, LEBANON) ✰✰


67. Lu Xun (1881, Shaoxing, China) ✰✰


68. Stéphane Mallarmé (1842, Paris, FRANCE) ✰✰


69. Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893, Baghdati, Georgia) ✰✰


70. Mikhail Bulgakov (1891, Kiev, UKRAINE) ✰✰


71. Alexandre Dumas (1802, Villers-Cotterêts, FRANCE) ✰✰


72. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803, Boston, United States) ✰✰


73. Rabindranath Tagore (1861, Jorasanko, India) ✰✰


74. Charlotte Brontë (1816, Thornton, United Kingdom) ✰✰


75. Theodor Herzl (1860, Budapest, Hungary) ✰✰


76. Fernando Pessoa (1888, Lisbon District, PORTUGAL) ✰✰


77. Ivan Bunin (1870, Voronezh, Russia) ✰✰


78. Henry James (1843, New York, United States) ✰✰


79. Robert Musil (1880, Klagenfurt, AUSTRIA) ✰✰


80. Henry Miller (1891, New York, United States) ✰✰


81. Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846, Wola Okrzejska, Poland) ✰✰


82. Gerhart Hauptmann (1862, Szczawno-Zdrój, POLAND) ✰✰


83. Jorge Luis Borges (1899, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA) ✰✰


84. Paul Valéry (1871, Sète, France) ✰✰


85. Sigrid Undset (1882, Kalundborg, DENMARK) ✰✰


86. Luigi Pirandello (1867, Agrigento, ITALY) ✰✰


87. William Butler Yeats (1865, Sandymount, Ireland) ✰✰


88. Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (1809, Somersby, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰


89. Anna Akhmatova (1889, Odessa, UKRAINE) ✰✰


90. Ivo Andrić (1892, Travnik, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA) ✰✰


91. Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (1830, Berlin, GERMANY) ✰✰


92. François Mauriac (1885, Bordeaux, FRANCE) ✰✰


93. Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (1832, Kvikne, NORWAY) ✰✰


94. C. S. Lewis (1898, Belfast, UNITED KINGDOM) ✰✰


95. Raymond Chandler (1888, Chicago, United States) ✰✰


96. José Martí (1853, Havana, CUBA) ✰✰


97. Tristan Tzara (1896, Moineşti, Romania) ✰✰


98. Ezra Pound (1885, Hailey, United States) ✰✰


99. Nelly Sachs (1891, Schöneberg, GERMANY) ✰✰


100. Roger Martin du Gard (1881, Neuilly-sur-Seine, FRANCE) ✰✰


Source:

Yu, A. Z., et al. (2016). Pantheon 1.0, a manually verified dataset of globally famous biographies. Scientific Data 2:150075. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.75

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